Indonesia is a country that has many and various ethnic groups. Ethnic groups are social groups that exist in society that are used to distinguish one group from another. There are also those who argue that ethnicity is a group of people who have similarities between members of one another. Generally these similarities are in the form of lineage, biological characteristics, language, culture and behavior. Each ethnic group has its own characteristics and uniqueness. Even though they are unique and different, they are still one Indonesia. This is in accordance with the motto of the Indonesian state, ‘Bhinneka Tunggal Ika’, which means that all are different, but they are one. In Indonesia, ethnic groups are divided according to the region. The number of ethnic groups in Indonesia reaches hundreds, consisting of large tribes such as Javanese and Sundanese to small tribes who usually live in remote areas.
1. Suku Kubu – Sumatra (Jambi)
2. Suku Sakai – Sumatra
3. Suku Gayo – Sumatra
4. Suku Aceh – Sumatra
5. Suku Alas – Sumatra
6. Suku Devayan – Sumatra
7. Suku Haloban – Sumatra
8. Suku Kluet – Sumatra
9. Suku Lekon – Sumatra
10. Suku Pakpak – Sumatra
11. Suku Sigulai – Sumatra
12. Suku Singkil – Sumatra
13. Suku Tamiang – Sumatra
14. Suku Aneuk Jamee – Sumatra (Aceh)
15. Suku Batak – Sumatra
16. Suku Batak Angkola – Sumatra
17. Suku Batak Karo – Sumatra
18. Suku Batak Mandailing – Sumatra
19. Suku Batak Pakpak – Sumatra
20. Suku Batak Simalungun – Sumatra
21. Suku Batak Toba – Sumatra
22. Suku Nias – Sumatra
23. Suku Minangkabau – Sumatra
24. Suku Melayu – Sumatra
25. Suku Mentawai – Sumatra
26. Suku Laut – Sumatra
27. Suku Belitung – Sumatra
28. Suku Bangka – Sumatra
29. Suku Anak Dalam – Sumatra
30. Suku Kayu Agung – Sumatra
31. Suku Palembang – Sumatra
32. Suku Bengkulu – Sumatra
33. Suku Lampung – Sumatra
34. Suku Betawi – Jakarta
35. Suku Sunda – Pulau Jawa
36. Suku Jawa – Pulau Jawa
37. Suku Tionghoa – Pulau Jawa
38. Suku Baduy (badui) – Pulau Jawa
39. Suku Bawean – Pulau Jawa
40. Suku Tengger – Pulau Jawa
41. Suku Osing – Pulau Jawa
42. Suku Madura – Pulau Jawa
43. Suku Samin – Pulau Jawa
44. Suku Dayak – Kalimantan
45. Suku Banjar – Kalimantan
46. Suku Kutai – Kalimantan
47. Suku Berau – Kalimantan
48. Suku Paser – Kalimantan
49. Suku Bali – Bali
50. Suku Loloan – Bali
51. Suku Sasak – Nusa Tenggara Barat
52. Suku Bima – Nusa Tenggara Barat
53. Suku Sumbawa – Nusa Tenggara Barat
54. Suku Boti – Nusa Tenggara Timur
55. Suku Bunak – Nusa Tenggara Timur
56. Suku Manggarai – Nusa Tenggara Timur
57. Suku Sika – Nusa Tenggara Timur
58. Suku Sumba – Nusa Tenggara Timur
59. Suku Rote – Nusa Tenggara Timur
60. Suku Ngada – Nusa Tenggara Timur
61. Suku Flores – Nusa Tenggara Timur
62. Suku Ende – Nusa Tenggara Timur
63. Suku Gorontalo – Sulawesi Utara
64. Suku Kaidipang – Sulawesi Utara
65. Suku Minahasa – Sulawesi Utara
66. Suku Mongondow – Sulawesi Utara
67. Suku Sangir – Sulawesi Utara
68. Suku Bungku – Sulawesi Tengah
69. Suku Balesang – Sulawesi Tengah
70. Suku Balantak – Sulawesi Tengah
71. Suku Wakatobi – Sulawesi Tenggara
72. Suku Buton – Sulawesi
73. Suku Tolaki – Sulawesi
74. Suku Mandar – Sulawesi
75. Suku Luwu – Sulawesi
76. Suku Makassar – Sulawesi
77. Suku Bugis – Sulawesi
78. Suku Toraja – Sulawesi
79. Suku Bajo – Sulawesi
80. Suku Alune – Maluku
81. Suku Ambon – Maluku
82. Suku Aru – Maluku
83. Suku Buru – Maluku
84. Suku Fordata – Maluku
85. Suku Mamale – Maluku
86. Suku Nuaulu – Maluku
87. Suku Morotai – Maluku
88. Suku Halmahera – Maluku
89. Suku Wemale – Maluku
90. Suku Wai Apu – Maluku
91. Suku Ternate – Maluku
92. Suku Tidore – Maluku
93. Suku Seram – Maluku
94. Suku Sawai – Maluku
95. Suku Aero – Papua
96. Suku Asaro – Papua
97. Suku Kalam – Papua
98. Suku Huli – Papua
99. Suku Goroka – Papua
100. Suku Yali – Papua
101. Suku Korowai – Papua
102. Suku Dani – Papua
103. Suku Bauzi – Papua
104. Suku Amungme – Papua
105. Suku Asmat – Papua
106. Suku Muyu – Papua
1. Karapan Sapi,
Karapan sapi is one of the traditional ceremonies carried out by the Madurese for generations. This ceremony is carried out in the form of a cow race which is carried out at a people’s party which is carried out for generations.
2. Upacara Potong Jari,
This culture originates from the Dani tribe in the Baliem Valley, Papua to interpret the sadness of someone who is left behind (died) by a loved one.
The Kasada ceremony which is held every year is also an example of Indonesian culture which is always preserved. The ceremony which is held every 14th Kasada of the traditional Hindu Tengger calendar is the promise of the Tengger Tribe to Bromo.
4. Tanam Sasi,
Tanam sasi is a traditional ceremony to accompany death in Merauke. The sasi used in this ceremony is a type of wood that will be planted when death has reached 40 days and is removed after 1000 days.
Pariaman City also has an annual tradition that is always carried out on the 10th of Muharram. Tabuik or tabut which means a wooden coffin tells of a katu coffin containing the body of the Prophet’s grandson being flown by a buraq, so that the Pariaman people imitate the shape of the buroq.
This merarik culture is in the form of a wedding ceremony held in the Lombok area. A man who wants to get married must kidnap the woman he wants to marry and then take her home and get married the next day.
Makepung is part of an example of Indonesian culture being carried out in Bali. Makepung, which is a buffalo race, is basically a farmer’s game in the form of plowing the fields and has become a special tradition for certain celebrations.
8. Bau Nyale,
This unique culture is the activity of catching nyale which is carried out at low tide at 4 to 5 am in February or March. Nyale is the name for sea worms in Lombok. This nyale odor ceremony comes from Putri Mandalika.
Very unique, the existence of the Baduy Tribe in Banten presents an extraordinary unique martial art. Debus is a tradition of self-defense performances with sadistic and extreme attractions in the form of someone who is immune to sharp weapons and hard water.
This culture is a commemoration of death ceremonies carried out in Bali. A person who has died must be purified and then burned. This burning procession even uses a special ritual to obtain ashes to be thrown into the sea.
One example of this Indonesian culture comes from the city of Semarang. The ceremony to welcome the fasting month is carried out with a cultural carnival that shows warak ngendok. Warak ngendog is a fictional animal depicted by a goat with golden scales and the head of a dragon.
This one ceremony is carried out by the perpetrator by piercing the body using a dagger. This ceremony aims to believe in the existence of God Almighty.
This particular culture was presented by the Balinese before the Nyepi Day. The reason is, people will pray and pray on the beach to clean themselves.
14. Pandan War,
Pandan War or also known as Makare-Kare is a ceremony to hit pandan leaves for Lord Indra. Performers who perform this ritual will not feel pain from the thorns caused by pandan leaves.
This one ceremony is also carried out by the Balinese people. The ceremony of throwing banknotes is carried out 10 days after Rolling Day or also known as Kuningan Day for ancestral offerings.
16. Mapasilaga Tedong,
This ceremony is performed as the highlight of the Solo Sign Ceremony in Tana Toraja. This culture is done by pitting the tedong or Caucasian buffalo which can only be found in Toraja.
The Pasola culture carried out by the people of Sumba is an example of Indonesian culture which is always carried out every year. Pasola attractions are carried out by means of a horse-riding group fighting ritual.
This one kebo-keboan tradition is carried out by the Osing Tribe community. This tradition aims to ward off disease outbreaks, ask for rain during the dry season, and express gratitude when harvesting every 10th of Suro.
This ritual is a form of appreciating death by the Dayak Tribe. The Tiwah ritual is performed to move the bones of the deceased into Sandung. Tiwah is also accompanied by dances, gongs and other entertainment.
20. Menea Mundingen,
The Reuneuh Mundingeun ceremony is performed by the Sundanese people when they are 12 months pregnant. This ceremony aims for women who experience this condition to give birth immediately.
21. Rapai Daboh,
This culture is carried out by the Acehnese people in playing the art of dexterity and immunity. The culture that is played using the Rapai musical instrument is played like the Debus culture.
22. Pesta Bakar Batu,
This cultural tradition is carried out as an expression of gratitude for the Papuan people for the abundant blessings. This party is done by gathering relatives and residents of the same village as a symbol of peace.
This example of Indonesian culture is carried out by the people of Cirebon by presenting the art of dance that has magical elements. 24. Burial The burial is a death ceremony carried out in Trunyan Village. People who die in this place will only be placed around taru and incense trees.
The burial is a death ceremony carried out in Trunyan Village. People who die in this place will only be placed around taru and incense trees.
25. Tari Suanggi,
This culture is carried out by the people of West Papua. This dance with religious rituals tells the story of a wife who dies due to an evil spirit.
This culture is often done by the people of Aceh as a form of gratitude. This Pesijuk tradition is a joint prayer led by Tengku or Ustadz.
The ceremony of expressing gratitude is also carried out by the Minahasa Tribe. This culture is carried out by holding a parade while playing music and singing.
Ngebabali culture is carried out by the people of West Lampung. This ceremony is carried out when opening new land to build a house.
The West Kutai area also hosts the Dahau culture. This tradition is basically a festival that is held at the end of October.
30. Tari Saman,
This dance that comes from the Gayo Tribe is played by more than 10 women. The reason, this dance is done to express the teachings of Islam.
31. Tari Kecak,
Different from the others, this dance was born to preserve Hindu culture. This dance originating from Bali also contains the story of the Ramayana in the Sanghyang ceremony.
32. Tari Serimpi,
This culture comes from the Yogyakarta palace. Serimpi dance is presented to symbolize the culture of gentle keratin. 33. Yapong Dance This dance comes from Jakarta. The presence of this dance is even done to provide entertainment in a show.
34. Makan Bajamba,
This culture comes from the Minangkabau community. The reason is, the tradition of eating bajamba will be followed by thousands of people by performing art performances. Those are some of Indonesia’s unique cultures that are always held every year. Let’s protect and preserve Indonesian local culture.